The Assembly's Judiciary Committee will also have power to subpoena documents and witness testimony. It could rely on work done by the attorney general's team of investigators, or gather its own evidence.
The scope of its inquiry might go beyond Cuomo's conduct with women. The governor is also under fire for his handling of the COVID-19 crisis in the state's nursing homes.
Many lawmakers have been outraged that the Cuomo administration declined, for months, to release the full number of nursing home patients killed by the virus.
The governor's office said some of the data, related to deaths of nursing home patients who had been transferred to hospitals, was unreliable. But in a recorded conference call with lawmakers, Cuomo's top aide said the administration withheld the data in late summer because it was afraid the fatality numbers could be "used against us."
Federal investigators are scrutinizing how the Cuomo administration handled data about nursing home deaths.
The committee's work could result in the drafting of articles of impeachment against Cuomo, though that outcome is far from certain.
One of the women who has reportedly accused Cuomo of groping her has not spoken publicly about what happened and it is unclear whether she would be willing to offer public testimony in an impeachment trial.